Control Surface main
MIDI Control Surface library for Arduino


This example reads multiple encoders using pin change interrupts, on an Arduino Uno or Nano.


The ATmega328P microcontroller only has two interrupt pins (2 and 3), so if you want to use more than two interrupt-driven encoders, you'll either have to use a timer interrupt to continuously poll the encoders, or use the chip's pin change interrupts. This example demonstrates the latter.

See also

Familiarity with direct port manipulation is assumed.


Connect three encoders to the pins of port C as follows:

Connect the common pins to ground, the internal pull-up resistors will be enabled.


When the position of one of the encoders changes, it is printed to the Serial monitor.

Written by PieterP, 2021-08-11

// The number of encoders to read:
constexpr uint8_t num_enc = 3;
// Mask the bottom 6 bits of the GPIO registers (2 pins × 3 encoders).
// This determines which pins are used:
const uint8_t pin_mask = 0x3F;
// The actual encoder object that keeps track of the encoder state:
RegisterEncoders<uint8_t, num_enc, int32_t, true> encoders;
// AVR uses 8-bit GPIO registers, so the register type is uint8_t.
// Then we specify the number of encoders, the position type,
// and whether the encoders should be interrupt-safe: since we'll
// be calling `encoders.update()` in an interrupt handler, it is
// important that this is set to true.
// Pin change interrupt handler that reads the pins and updates the state:
ISR (PCINT1_vect) { encoders.update(PINC & pin_mask); } // read port C
void setup() {
PCMSK1 |= pin_mask; // enable pin change interrupt for given pins in port C
DDRC &= ~pin_mask; // input mode for port C
PORTC |= pin_mask; // enable pull-up resistors for port C
PCICR |= 1 << 1; // enable pin change interrupt for port C
void loop() {
// The previous position of each encoder, to detect changes:
static int32_t prevPos[num_enc] {};
// Read the encoder positions and print if they changed:
for (uint8_t i = 0; i < num_enc; ++i) {
int32_t newPos = encoders[i].read();
if (newPos != prevPos[i]) {
Serial << '[' << i << "] " << newPos << endl;
prevPos[i] = newPos;
Dummy header file for Arduino builder.
Print & endl(Print &printer)
Definition: PrintStream.cpp:27